Math Access for Teachers and Home Child Care Providers

Sandwich Shop Game

Children look at a menu and count out sandwich pieces to build their sandwich
and then calculate the price of their sandwich.

Content Area Standard Target
• Numbers and Operations
• Algebra
• Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems

• Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates
• Understand patterns, relations, and functions
• Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another
• Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships
• Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them
• Count with understanding and recognize “how many” in sets of objects
• Develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections
• Understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers
• Develop and use strategies for whole-number computations, with a focus on addition and subtraction
• Develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction
• Model situations that involve the addition and subtraction of whole numbers, using objects, pictures and symbols
Obtain the Materials

• Ham – 2 cents
• Lettuce – 3 cents
• Tomatoes – 4 cents
• Cheese – 5 cents
• Onions – 6 cents
• Sandwich items.  I use craft foam sheet or laminated colored construction paper to preserve the life of the game.  Depending on the children, you will want about 24 pieces of each kind of food.
• Bread – Brown and cut out to look like a slice of bread.  I make a lot of these because the children usually have 2 slices of bread for their sandwich.  I write 1 cent on top of the bread.
• Ham – Pink and cut out to look like a rounded-edge square.  Write 2 cents.
• Lettuce – Green.  A frilly-edged circle.  Write 3 cents.
• Tomatoes – Red.  A circle.  Write 4 cents.
• Cheese – Yellow.  A rounded-edge square.  Write 5 cents
• Onions – White.  A circle.  Write 6 cents.
(You can be creative and adapt your item selection as needed.  I work in a nut-free environment so peanut butter is not an option)
• Trays or low-edged baskets so they children can collect their sandwich pieces.
• Recording sheet that has number of each item they collected and the price of their sandwich.

Note: Small parts create a choking hazard for children. Make sure that all materials you choose to use for an activity or lesson with children meet safety requirements. Small parts are not appropriate for children who are 5 years of age or younger.

Introduce the Activity

1. Ask the children if they have ever made a sandwich before or been at a deli or restaurant and ordered a sandwich.  Explain that today they are going to plan a game in which the children are going to make their own sandwiches and figure out how much their sandwich costs. “The Name of game is called The Sandwich Shop
2. Explain the directions of the game.  Using the items available, the children are to create a sandwich.  Model what that would look like. “Let’s see…. I want 2 pieces of bread, a piece of ham, 1 pieces of cheese, and a tomato.”  Assemble your sandwich.  “Now I need to add up all my sandwich ingredients.  I will use my recording sheet to do this”  On your recording sheet, put the number 2 next to Bread, the number 1 next cheese, tomato, and ham.
3. Add up the ingredients.  “A piece of bread costs 1 cent and I have 2 of them.  1 + 1 = 2.  I have a piece of ham.  Who can look on the menu and see how much a piece of ham costs?”  (2)  “So 2 + 2 = 4”  Add the remaining sandwich items.  “My sandwich costs 13 cents.  Now you will get a chance to assemble a sandwich and figure out the cost of that sandwich”

Engage the Children

1. Place the menus and the sandwich pieces at different stations around the room.  Each child should have their recording sheet and access to a menu and the sandwich pieces.
2. Once the children are done constructing their sandwiches, circulate to see if any of the children need help adding the cost of their sandwich.  You might need to put out counters to help the children add
3. When all the children have their sandwiches and the price of their sandwiches, have them compare their sandwiches to those of the other children.  “Who has the most expensive sandwich?”  “Who has the least expensive sandwich?  Why?”

• Once the children have assembled and calculated the price of one sandwich, have them build another sandwich using different items or more items.  The children can do this activity more than once, always changing it up.
• Add more items.  Chicken for 7 cents, jelly for 8 cents….. It is easy to replicate these items using the craft foam sheets.  You don’t even necessarily need to increase the price especially if your children are just beginning to add.  You can keep all items below 5 cents and have multiple items for the same price.

Encourage Vocabulary

• Add Increase in amount or number (e.g., "When we add a piece of cheese and a tomato together, how much will that be?")
• Calculate – To determine the amount or number of something (e.g., "Let’s calculate the price of this sandwich.")
• Most –  Having the greatest quantity or number (e.g., "Who has the most expensive sandwich?")
• Least –  Having the smallest quantity or number (e.g., "Who has the least expensive sandwich?")

Glossary of MATH vocabulary

Supporting Children at Different Levels

Toddlers   Pre-K

Toddlers may:

• Not yet identify numbers.
• Possess number recognition but cannot yet add.

Pre-K Children may:

• Add single-digit numbers fluently and are beginning to expand into numbers 10 – 20.

Home child care providers may:

• Read the menu to the children and have the children count out the number of pieces called out.  The children will be making the same sandwich and gathering the items for their sandwich.
• Design a different menu that has the children constructing sandwiches on the menu but not calculating the price of their sandwich.  The menu should contain different variations of a sandwich using the provided items.  For example, Sandwich #1 had 1 piece of bread, 2 pieces of cheese, 1 tomato and 1 onion.  The children will count out and collect those items for their sandwich.  Sandwich #2 will be a different sandwich using the provided items on the menu.

Home child care providers may:

• Once the children have assembled and calculated the price of one sandwich, have them build another sandwich using different items or more items.  The children can do this activity more than once, always changing it up.
• Add more items.  Chicken for 7 cents, jelly for 8 cents….. It is easy to replicate these items using the craft foam sheets.  You don’t even necessarily need to increase the price especially if your children are just beginning to add.  You can keep all items below 5 cents and have multiple items for the same price.

Books

• Lemonade for Sale (MathStart 3) by Stuart J. Murphy (New York: HarperCollins, 1997)

• 1+1=5: and Other Unlikely Additions by David LaRochelle (New York: Sterling, 2010)

• This Plus That: Life's Little Equations by Amy Krouse Rosenthal (New York: HarperCollins, 2011)

Music and Movement

Outdoor Connections

• While this lesson isn’t about money, have the children set up a type of store or lemonade stand.  Keep prices low and only use pennies to pay for the items. You don’t even need to use money to play, use can use snap blocks or any other manipulatives.  The price of a glass of lemonade can be 4 snap blocks.  The shopper needs to count out 4 blocks and give those blocks to the shopkeeper. Divide the group in half and one group can be the store and one group can shop.

• This is a great activity to cleanse your classroom of unwanted items.  The children can “buy” the items and have something to take home.  The children love taking home little mementos from their classroom.

Web Resources

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