## Diaper Time: On/Off

Infants

### Content Area:

Algebra
Geometry
Numbers and Operations

Diaper Time

## Diaper Time: On/Off

### Lesson plan for infants 0 to 6 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 0 to 6 months.

Play: Infants begin by using their eyes to explore toys and then begin to use their hands and mouths to explore. Their play is primarily shaking, banging and mouthing. At the end of this stage, they begin to look for dropped toys and may find a partially hidden object.

Communication: Young infants recognize their parents and familiar caregivers. They smile and laugh during playful interactions such as peek-a-boo. They make early cooing and babbling sounds.

Motor: When placed on their tummies, infants learn to hold up their heads and reach for toys. They begin to reach and grasp for objects, beginning with the caregivers’ clothes and hair and then moving on to toys and objects. At the end of this stage, many infants may help hold their own bottles and help bring the bottles to their mouths. They may also begin to take pureed food from a spoon.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Diapers
• Wipes
• Changing Table

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

Young infants understand OFF and ON though routines. The daily routine of diapering is a great time to practice OFF and ON. Before you place an infant on the changing table, say or sing: “(Child’s name), time for a fresh diaper” while holding your arms out toward the infant. Touch the infant’s hands and encourage the infant to reach for you. As you place the infant on the changing table, say: “(Child’s name) is ON the changing table.”  As you remove the diaper, say: “Diaper is OFF.” As you fasten the diaper, say: “Diaper is ON.”  Hold your arms out toward the infant and touch the infant’s hands, encouraging the infant to reach for you. As you pick the infant up, say: “(Child’s name) is OFF of the changing table.”

## Diaper Time: On/Off

### Lesson plan for infants 6 to 12 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 6 to 12 months.

Play: At the beginning of this stage, play is mostly shaking, banging and mouthing toys. By the end of this stage, infants begin to combine objects that go together in play. They reach for and hold two objects and may begin to reach for a third. Many infants will look for dropped toys and find partially and completely hidden toys. Many infants enjoy taking objects out of containers and putting them back in.

Communication: At this age, infants respond when their names are called. They may turn their heads, make eye contact and sometimes smile and vocalize. They may look for family members and pets when called by name. They may respond to simple requests made with gestures, such as: “Come here.” They may understand “No” or “Stop.” They may lift their arms to be picked up, clap hands and wave bye-bye. They love to shout and squeal and may be babbling with many different sounds. They may be participating in and sometimes initiating peek-a-boo.

Motor: During this stage, many infants begin to sit by themselves and play. They begin to move by rolling, crawling and cruising. They pick up toys by using a raking motion with their whole hand and, by the end of this stage, they are using their fingers and thumbs to pick up small objects. They may feed themselves small bits of food.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Diapers
• Wipes

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

As a young infant begins to roll and crawl, diapering can become a challenge. Singing a song can increase the infant’s cooperation. Before you place the infant on the changing table, say or sing: “(Child’s name), time for a fresh diaper.” Hold your arms out and wait a few seconds to allow the infant to put his/her arms up. If the infant does not do this, touch the infant’s hand and encourage the infant to reach for you.

As you place the infant on the changing table, say: “(Child’s name) is ON the changing table.”

Begin singing the “Diaper Change Time” song to the tune of Frère Jacques.

“Diaper change time, diaper change time, diaper is OFF, diaper is OFF, (child’s name) has clean pants, (child’s name) has clean pants, diaper is ON, diaper is ON.”

As you remove the infant’s diaper, sing the first two lines of the song: “Diaper change time, diaper change time, diaper is OFF, diaper is OFF.” As you fasten the infant’s diaper, sing the last two lines of the song: “(Child’s name) has clean pants, (child’s name) has clean pants, diaper is ON, diaper is ON.” Hold your arms out toward the infant and wait a few seconds to allow the infant to put his/her arms out. If the infant doesn’t do this, touch his/her hands and encourage the infant to reach for you. As you pick the infant up, say: “(Child’s name) is OFF of the changing table.”

## Diaper Time: On/Off

### Lesson plan for infants 12 to 18 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 12 to 18 months.

Play: At the beginning of this stage, many infants are imitating the use of everyday objects such as cups and spoons. This moves into early pretend play, when the infant may feed you or pretend to drink from a cup or eat off of an empty spoon. They also are great imitators and may enjoy imitating daily activities. They may enjoy putting multiple objects into containers and systematically searching for hidden toys and objects. Many infants will pat pictures in books and sometimes vocalize while looking at books.

Communication: At the beginning of this stage, many infants begin to respond to one-step directions such as: “Give me the ball.” They may need gestures to help them understand the direction. At the end of this stage, many infants follow a related two-step direction without the help of gestures, such as: “Get the ball and give it to Daddy.” They may be pointing to ask for wants and needs and to ask you to name objects. At around 12 months of age, many infants say one to three words on their own and, by the end of this stage, may say up to 15 words or more. Many infants play turn-taking games at this stage.

Motor: At the beginning of this stage, many infants are crawling and cruising to get around and, by the end of this stage, infants are walking with good balance. They may also enjoy walking while carrying large objects and pulling toys. When given a crayon for the first time, they may mouth the crayon or mark the paper. By the end of this stage, many infants are scribbling on paper. They may be starting to scoop food with a spoon and actually get some to their mouths. Infants may also be using a straw or an open cup to drink.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Diapers
• Wipes
• Changing Table

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

Diapering can be quite a challenge at this age. Singing a song can increase an infant’s cooperation. Before you place the infant on the changing table, say or sing: “(Child’s name), time for a fresh diaper.” Hold your arms out toward the infant and wait for the infant to put up his/her arms or vocalize. As you place the infant on the changing table, say: “(Child’s name) is ON the changing table.”

Begin singing the “Diaper Change Time” song to the tune of Frère Jacques.

“Diaper change time, diaper change time, diaper is OFF, diaper is OFF, (child’s name) has clean pants, (child’s name) has clean pants, diaper is ON, diaper is ON.”

As you remove the infant’s diaper, sing the first two lines of the song: “Diaper change time, diaper change time, diaper is OFF, diaper is OFF.” As you fasten the infant’s diaper, sing the last two lines of the song:”(Child’s name) has clean pants, (child’s name) has clean pants, diaper is ON, diaper is ON.”

Hold your arms out toward the infant, wait for the infant to put his/her arms up or vocalize. As you pick up the infant, say: “(Child’s name) is OFF of the changing table.”

How might you teach OFF and ON  during other daily activities and routines?

What books do you have in your child care setting that reinforce the math concepts of OFF and ON?

What songs or finger plays do you typically use in your child care setting that reinforce the math concepts of OFF and ON?